Axioms, Starting Points

  • A true definition for “argument” is a discussion in which reasons are put forward in support of and against a proposition, proposal, or case. 

  • A simple and universal definition of “logic” is: the system or principles of reasoning applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. 

  • “Reason” is generally defined as a basis or cause, as for some belief, action, fact, event, etc.; and “reasoning” as the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises. 

  • In the same manner, we can call “science” the investigation of natural phenomena through observation, theoretical explanation, and experimentation, or the knowledge produced by such investigation. Thus, “the scientific method” is as follows: the careful observation of natural phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis, the conducting of one or more experiments to test the hypothesis, and the drawing of a conclusion that confirms or modifies the hypothesis. 

  • A general definition of “religion” is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs. 

  • When used as an adjective, “objective” describes something existing independently of perception or an individual's conceptions – undistorted by emotion or personal bias (the thing-in-itself). On the other hand, “subjective” belongs to the thinking subject rather than to the object of thought (one’s interpretation of the thing-in-itself). 

  • Despite its religious connotations, a true definition for “dogma” is: a settled or established opinion, belief, or principle.

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